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Authors Second Edition Dora Szabo , David L. Proteus is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family. The genus of Proteus consists of motile, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative rods. Proteus is a member of the tribe Proteeae , which also includes Morganella and Providencia. The genus Proteus currently consists of five named species: Proteus genomospecies 4, 5, 6 However, a recent study indicated that P.
A striking microbiologic characteristic of Proteus species is their swarming activity. Swarming appears macroscopically as concentric rings of growth emanating from a single colony or inoculum. On a cellular level, swarming results from bacterial transformation from "swimmer cells" in broth to "swarmer cells" on a surface such as agar, in a process involving cellular elongation and increased flagellin synthesis The genus name Proteus originates from the mythological Greek sea god Proteus , who was an attendant to Poseidon Proteus could change his shape at will.
This attribute reminded early microbiologists of the morphologic variability of the Protei on subculture, including their ability to swarm. Members of the genus Proteus are widespread in the environment and are found in the human gastrointestinal tract 9. The most common infections caused by Proteus spp. Therefore, like Escherichia coli , Proteus spp. It is a common cause of bacteremia following catheter-associated UTI 90 , and in rare cases has been reported to cause cellulitis, endocarditits, mastoiditis, empyema, and osteomyelitis 24 , 61 , 86 , It has also been suggested that P.
There has also been one case study of P. There has been one case study of P. There has also been one recent report of P. Thus, the burden of human infections caused by this organism may be underestimated.
The clinical manifestations of infections with Proteus spp. However, urinary tract infections involving struvite stones are characteristic. By producing urease, Proteus spp. Alkalinization of urine promotes precipitation of magnesium-ammonium phosphate salts leading to the formation of struvite stones, which may serve as a nidus for the persistence of infection or may directly obstruct the urinary tract, thereby promoting infection.